The Creeks lived in what is now the South, mostly in the present states of Tennessee, Alabama and Georgia. Immigration from Europe boomed, and white settlers moved west to find land. The situation created a rift in the Creek Nation, one of the five civilized tribes in the area (Cherokee Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek and Seminole).
The Upper Creeks who wanted to fight the encroaching whites were called “Red Sticks” because their war clubs were red. The peaceful Lower Creeks, in the minority, willing to accommodate the incoming whites, were called “White Sticks.” Both groups had intermarried and assimilated with the whites, owning houses and farms like them. Both the Creeks and the white settlers owned slaves.